阳光生肖|黄大仙救世

The Basic Law Of The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Of The People's Republic Of China

Date:2008-12-23 11:45
 Important Notice:
This  English  document  is  coming  from  "LAWS  AND  REGULATIONS  OF THE
PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF  CHINA  GOVERNING  FOREIGN-RELATED  MATTERS" (1991.7)
which  is  compiled  by  the  Brueau  of  Legislative Affairs of the State
Council of  the  People's Republic of China, and is published by the China
Legal System Publishing House.
In case of discrepancy, the original version in Chinese shall prevail. 
  

THE BASIC LAW OF THE HONG KONG SPECIAL  ADMINISTRATIVE  REGION  OF
THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
(Adopted at the Third Session of  the  Seventh  National  People's
Congress on April 4, 1990, promulgated by Order No. 26 of the President of
the People's Republic of China on April 4, 1990, and effective as of  July
1, 1997)
  
          Preamble

Hong Kong has been part of the territory of China since ancient times;  it
was occupied by Britain after the Opium War in 1840. On 19 December  1984,
the Chinese and British Governments signed the Joint  Declaration  on  the
Question of Hong Kong, affirming  that  the  Government  of  the  People's
Republic of China will resume the exercise of sovereignty over  Hong  Kong
with effect from 1 July 1997, thus fulfilling  the  long-cherished  common
aspiration of the Chinese people for the recovery of Hong Kong.  Upholding
national unity and territorial integrity, maintaining the  prosperity  and
stability of Hong Kong, and taking account of its history  and  realities,
the People's Republic of China has decided that upon China's resumption of
the  exercise  of  sovereignty  over  Hong  Kong,  a  Hong  Kong   Special
Administrative  Region  will  be  established  in  accordance   with   the
provisions of Article 31 of the Constitution of the People's  Republic  of
China, and that under the principle of "one  country,  two  systems,"  the
socialist system and policies will not be  practised  in  Hong  Kong.  The
basic policies of the People's Republic of China regarding Hong Kong  have
been elaborated by  the  Chinese  Government  in  the  Sino-British  Joint
Declaration.
In accordance with the Constitution of the People's Republic of China, the
National People's Congress hereby enacts the Basic Law of  the  Hong  Kong
Special  Administrative  Region  of  the  People's  Republic   of   China,
prescribing  the  systems  to  be  practised  in  the  Hong  Kong  Special
Administrative Region, in order to ensure the implementation of the  basic
policies of the People's Republic of China regarding Hong Kong.
  
          Chapter I General Principles

Article 1
The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region is an inalienable part of  the
people's Republic of China.
Article 2
The  National  People's  Congress  authorizes  the   Hong   Kong   Special
Administrative Region to exercise a high  degree  of  autonomy  and  enjoy
executive, legislative and independent judicial power, including  that  of
final adjudication, in accordance with the provisions of this Law.
Article 3
The executive  authorities  and  legislature  of  the  Hong  Kong  Special
Administrative Region shall be composed of  permanent  residents  of  Hong
Kong in accordance with the relevant provisions of this Law.
Article 4
The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall safeguard the rights and
freedoms of the residents of the Hong Kong Special  Administrative  Region
and of other persons in the Region in accordance with law.
Article 5
The socialist system and policies shall not be practised in the Hong  Kong
Special Administrative Region, and the previous capitalist system and  way
of life shall remain unchanged for 50 years.
Article 6
The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall  protect  the  right  of
private ownership of property in accordance with law.
Article 7
The land and natural resources within the Hong Kong Special Administrative
Region shall be State property. The Government of the  Hong  Kong  Special
Administrative Region shall be responsible for their management,  use  and
development and for their lease or grant to individuals, legal persons  or
organizations for use or development. The revenues derived therefrom shall
be exclusively at the disposal of the government of the Region.
Article 8
The laws previously in force in Hong Kong, that is, the common law,  rules
of equity, ordinances, subordinate legislation and customary law shall  be
maintained, except for any that contravene this Law, and  subject  to  any
amendment by the legislature  of  the  Hong  Kong  Special  Administrative
Region.
Article 9
In addition to the Chinese language,  English  may  also  be  used  as  an
official language by the executive authorities, legislature and  judiciary
of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.

Article 10
Apart from displaying  the  national  flag  and  national  emblem  of  the
People's Republic of China, the Hong Kong  Special  Administrative  Region
may also use a regional flag and regional emblem.
The regional flag of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region is a  red
flag with a bauhinia highlighted by five star-tipped stamens.
The regional emblem of the Hong Kong Special Administrative  Region  is  a
bauhinia in  the  centre  highlighted  by  five  star-tipped  stamens  and
encircled by the words "Hong Kong Special  Administrative  Region  of  the
People's Republic of China" in Chinese and "HONG KONG" in English.
Article 11
In accordance with Article 31 of the Constitution of the People's Republic
of China, the systems and policies practised  in  the  Hong  Kong  Special
Administrative Region, including the  social  and  economic  systems,  the
system for  safeguarding  the  fundamental  rights  and  freedoms  of  its
residents, the  executive,  legislative  and  judicial  systems,  and  the
relevant policies, shall be based on the provisions of this Law.
No law enacted by the legislature of the Hong Kong Special  Administrative
Region shall contravene this Law.
  
          Chapter II Relationship Between the Central  Authorities  and  the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

Article 12
The  Hong  Kong  Special  Administrative   Region   shall   be   a   local
administrative region of the People's Republic of China, which shall enjoy
a high degree of autonomy and come directly  under  the  Central  People's
Government.
Article 13
The Central People's Government  shall  be  responsible  for  the  foreign
affairs relating to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic  of  China  shall
establish an office in Hong Kong to deal with foreign affairs.
The  Central  People's  Government  authorizes  the  Hong   Kong   Special
Administrative Region to conduct relevant external affairs on its  own  in
accordance with this Law.
Article 14
The Central People's Government shall be responsible for  the  defence  of
the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.
The Government of the Hong Kong Special  Administrative  Region  shall  be
responsible for the maintenance of public order in the Region.
Military forces stationed by the Central People's Government in  the  Hong
Kong Special Administrative Region for defence shall not interfere in  the
local affairs of the Region. The  Government  of  the  Hong  Kong  Special
Administrative Region  may,  when  necessary,  ask  the  Central  People's
Government for assistance from the garrison in the maintenance  of  public
order and in disaster relief.
In addition to abiding by national laws, members  of  the  garrison  shall
abide by the laws of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.
Expenditure for the garrison  shall  be  borne  by  the  Central  People's
Government.
Article 15
The Central People's Government shall appoint the Chief Executive and  the
principal officials of the executive authorities of the Hong Kong  Special
Administrative Region in accordance with the provisions of Chapter  IV  of
this Law.
Article 16
The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall be vested with executive
power. It shall, on its own, conduct the  administrative  affairs  of  the
Region in accordance with the relevant provisions of this Law.

Article 17
The  Hong  Kong  Special  Administrative  Region  shall  be  vested   with
legislative power. Laws enacted  by  the  legislature  of  the  Hong  Kong
Special Administrative Region must be reported to the  Standing  Committee
of the National People's Congress for the record. The reporting for record
shall not affect the entry into force  of  such  laws.   If  the  Standing
Committee  of  the  National  People's  Congress,  after  consulting   the
Committee for the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
under it, considers that any law enacted by the legislature of the  Region
is not in conformity with the provisions of  this  Law  regarding  affairs
within the responsibility of the  Central  Authorities  or  regarding  the
relationship between the Central Authorities and the Region, the  Standing
Committee may return the law in question but shall not amend it.  Any  law
returned by the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress shall
immediately be invalidated. This invalidation shall not  have  retroactive
effect, unless otherwise provided for in the laws of the Region.

Article 18
The laws in force in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall  be
this Law, the laws previously in force in Hong Kong  as  provided  for  in
Article 8 of this Law, and the laws enacted  by  the  legislature  of  the
Region.
National laws shall not be applied in the Hong Kong Special Administrative
Region except for those listed in Annex III to this Law. The  laws  listed
therein shall be applied locally by way of promulgation or legislation  by
the Region.
The Standing Committee of the National People's Congress  may  add  to  or
delete from the list of laws in Annex III after consulting  its  Committee
for the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region  and  the
government of the Region. Laws listed in Annex III to this  Law  shall  be
confined to those relating to defence and foreign affairs as well as other
matters outside the limits of the autonomy of the Region as  specified  by
this Law.
In the event that the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress
decides to declare a state of war or, by reason of turmoil within the Hong
Kong Special Administrative  Region  which  endangers  national  unity  or
security and is beyond the  control  of  the  government  of  the  Region,
decides that the Region is in a state of emergency, the  Central  People's
Government may issue an order applying the relevant national laws  in  the
Region.
Article 19
The  Hong  Kong  Special  Administrative  Region  shall  be  vested   with
independent judicial power, including that of final adjudication.
The courts of the Hong  Kong  Special  Administrative  Region  shall  have
jurisdiction over all cases in the Region, except that the restrictions on
their jurisdiction imposed by the legal system and  principles  previously
in force in Hong Kong shall be maintained.  The courts of  the  Hong  Kong
Special Administrative Region shall have  no  jurisdiction  over  acts  of
state such as defence and foreign affairs. The courts of the Region  shall
obtain a certificate  from  the  Chief  Executive  on  questions  of  fact
concerning acts of state such as defence and foreign affairs whenever such
questions arise in the adjudication of cases. This  certificate  shall  be
binding on the courts.  Before  issuing  such  a  certificate,  the  Chief
Executive shall obtain a certifying document  from  the  Central  People's
Government.

Article 20
The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region may enjoy other powers granted
to it by the National People's Congress, the  Standing  Committee  of  the
National People's Congress or the Central People's Government.
Article 21
Chinese citizens who are residents of the Hong Kong Special Administrative
Region shall be entitled to participate in the management of state affairs
according to law. In accordance with the assigned number of seats and  the
selection method specified by the National People's Congress, the  Chinese
citizens among the residents  of  the  Hong  Kong  Special  Administrative
Region shall locally elect deputies of the Region to the National People's
Congress to participate in the work of the highest organ of state power.
Article 22
No  department  of  the  Central  People's  Government  and  no  province,
autonomous region, or municipality directly under the  Central  Government
may interfere in the affairs which the Hong  Kong  Special  Administrative
Region administers on its own in accordance with this Law.
If there is a need for departments  of  the  Central  Government,  or  for
provinces,  autonomous  regions,  or  municipalities  directly  under  the
Central  Government  to  set  up  offices  in  the   Hong   Kong   Special
Administrative Region, they must obtain the consent of the  government  of
the Region and the  approval  of  the  Central  People's  Government.  All
offices  set  up  in  the  Hong  Kong  Special  Administrative  Region  by
departments  of  the  Central  Government,  or  by  provinces,  autonomous
regions, or municipalities directly under the Central Government, and  the
personnel of these offices shall abide by the laws of the Region.
For entry into the Hong Kong Special Administrative  Region,  people  from
other parts of China must apply for approval. Among them,  the  number  of
persons who enter the Region  for  the  purpose  of  settlement  shall  be
determined by the competent authorities of the Central People's Government
after consulting the government of  the  Region.  The  Hong  Kong  Special
Administrative Region may establish an office in Beijing.
Article 23
The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall enact laws on its own to
prohibit any act of treason, secession, sedition, subversion  against  the
Central People's Government,  or  theft  of  state  secrets,  to  prohibit
foreign  political  organizations  or  bodies  from  conducting  political
activities in the Region,  and  to  prohibit  political  organizations  or
bodies of  the  Region  from  establishing  ties  with  foreign  political
organizations or bodies.
  
          Chapter III Fundamental Rights and Duties of the Residents

Article 24
Residents of the Hong  Kong  Special  Administrative  Region  ("Hong  Kong
residents") shall include permanent residents and non-permanent residents.
The permanent residents of the Hong  Kong  Special  Administrative  Region
shall be:
(1) Chinese citizens born in Hong Kong before or after  the  establishment
of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region;
(2) Chinese citizens who have  ordinarily  resided  in  Hong  Kong  for  a
continuous period of not  less  than  seven  years  before  or  after  the
establishment of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region;
(3) Persons of  Chinese  nationality  born  outside  Hong  Kong  of  those
residents listed in categories (1) and (2);
(4) Persons not of Chinese nationality who have  entered  Hong  Kong  with
valid travel documents,  have  ordinarily  resided  in  Hong  Kong  for  a
continuous period of not less than seven years and have taken Hong Kong as
their place of permanent residence before or after  the  establishment  of
the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region;
(5) Persons under 21 years of age born in Hong  Kong  of  those  residents
listed in category (4) before or after the establishment of the Hong  Kong
Special Administrative Region; and
(6) Persons other than those residents listed in categories  (1)  to  (5),
who, before the establishment of  the  Hong  Kong  Special  Administrative
Region, had the right of abode in Hong Kong only.
The above-mentioned residents shall have the right of abode  in  the  Hong
Kong Special Administrative Region and shall be qualified  to  obtain,  in
accordance with the laws of the Region,  permanent  identity  cards  which
state their right of abode.  The non-permanent residents of the Hong  Kong
Special Administrative Region shall be persons who are qualified to obtain
Hong Kong identity cards in accordance with the laws  of  the  Region  but
have no right of abode.
Article 25
All Hong Kong residents shall be equal before the law.
Article 26
Permanent residents of the Hong Kong Special Administrative  Region  shall
have the right to vote and the right to stand for election  in  accordance
with law.
Article 27
Hong Kong residents shall have freedom of speech,  of  the  press  and  of
publication; freedom of association, of assembly,  of  procession  and  of
demonstration; and the right and freedom to form and  join  trade  unions,
and to strike.

Article 28
The freedom of the person of Hong Kong residents shall be inviolable.
No Hong Kong resident shall be subjected to arbitrary or unlawful  arrest,
detention or imprisonment. Arbitrary or unlawful search of the body of any
resident or deprivation or restriction of the freedom of the person  shall
be  prohibited.  Torture  of  any  resident  or  arbitrary   or   unlawful
deprivation of the life of any resident shall be prohibited.
Article 29
The homes and other premises of Hong Kong residents shall be inviolable.
Arbitrary or unlawful search of, or intrusion into, a resident's  home  or
other premises shall be prohibited.
Article 30
The freedom and privacy of communication of Hong Kong residents  shall  be
protected by law.  No  department  or  individual  may,  on  any  grounds,
infringe upon the freedom and privacy of communication of residents except
that the relevant authorities may inspect communication in accordance with
legal procedures to meet the needs of public security or of  investigation
into criminal offences.
Article 31
Hong Kong residents shall have freedom of movement within  the  Hong  Kong
Special Administrative Region and freedom of emigration to other countries
and regions. They shall have freedom to travel and to enter or  leave  the
Region. Unless restrained by law, holders of valid travel documents  shall
be free to leave the Region without special authorization.
Article 32
Hong Kong residents shall have freedom of conscience.
Hong Kong residents shall have freedom of religious belief and freedom  to
preach and to conduct and participate in religious activities in public.
Article 33
Hong Kong residents shall have freedom of choice of occupation.
Article 34
Hong Kong residents shall have freedom to  engage  in  academic  research,
literary and artistic creation, and other cultural activities.
Article 35
Hong Kong residents shall have the right  to  confidential  legal  advice,
access to the courts, choice of lawyers for  timely  protection  of  their
lawful rights and interests or for representation in the  courts,  and  to
judicial remedies.
Hong Kong residents shall have the right to institute legal proceedings in
the courts against  the  acts  of  the  executive  authorities  and  their
personnel.

Article 36
Hong Kong residents shall have the right to social welfare  in  accordance
with law. The welfare benefits and retirement security of the labour force
shall be protected by law.
Article 37
The freedom of marriage of Hong Kong residents and their right to raise  a
family freely shall be protected by law.
Article 38
Hong Kong residents shall enjoy the other rights and freedoms  safeguarded
by the laws of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.
Article 39
The provisions of  the  International  Covenant  on  Civil  and  Political
Rights, the  International  Covenant  on  Economic,  Social  and  Cultural
Rights, and international labour conventions as applied to Hong Kong shall
remain in force and shall be implemented through the laws of the Hong Kong
Special Administrative Region.
The rights and freedoms enjoyed  by  Hong  Kong  residents  shall  not  be
restricted unless as  prescribed  by  law.  Such  restrictions  shall  not
contravene the provisions of the preceding paragraph of this Article.
Article 40
The lawful traditional rights and interests of the indigenous  inhabitants
of the "New Territories" shall be  protected  by  the  Hong  Kong  Special
Administrative Region.
Article 41
Persons in the Hong Kong Special Administrative  Region  other  than  Hong
Kong residents shall,  in  accordance  with  law,  enjoy  the  rights  and
freedoms of Hong Kong residents prescribed in this Chapter.
Article 42
Hong Kong residents  and  other  persons  in  Hong  Kong  shall  have  the
obligation to abide by  the  laws  in  force  in  the  Hong  Kong  Special
Administrative Region.
  
          Chapter IV Political Structure

Section 1: The Chief Executive
Article 43
The Chief Executive of the Hong Kong Special Administrative  Region  shall
be the head of the Hong  Kong  Special  Administrative  Region  and  shall
represent the Region.  The  Chief  Executive  of  the  Hong  Kong  Special
Administrative  Region  shall  be  accountable  to  the  Central  People's
Government and the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region  in  accordance
with the provisions of this Law.
Article 44
The Chief Executive of the Hong Kong Special Administrative  Region  shall
be a Chinese citizen of not less than 40 years of age who is  a  permanent
resident of the Region with no right of abode in any foreign  country  and
has ordinarily resided in Hong Kong for a continuous period  of  not  less
than 20 years.
Article 45
The Chief Executive of the Hong Kong Special Administrative  Region  shall
be selected by election or  through  consultations  held  locally  and  be
appointed by the Central People's Government.
The method for selecting the Chief Executive shall  be  specified  in  the
light of the actual situation in  the  Hong  Kong  Special  Administrative
Region and in  accordance  with  the  principle  of  gradual  and  orderly
progress. The ultimate aim is the selection  of  the  Chief  Executive  by
universal suffrage upon nomination by a broadly representative  nominating
committee in accordance with democratic procedures.
The specific method for selecting the Chief  Executive  is  prescribed  in
Annex I "Method for the Selection of the Chief Executive of the Hong  Kong
Special Administrative Region".
Article 46
The term of office of  the  Chief  Executive  of  the  Hong  Kong  Special
Administrative Region shall be five years. He or she  may  serve  for  not
more than two consecutive terms.
Article 47
The Chief Executive of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region must be
a person of integrity, dedicated to his or her duties.
The Chief Executive, on assuming office, shall declare his or  her  assets
to the Chief Justice of the Court of Final Appeal of the Hong Kong Special
Administrative Region.  This declaration shall be put on record.

Article 48
The Chief Executive of the Hong Kong Special Administrative  Region  shall
exercise the following powers and functions:
(1) To lead the government of the Region;
(2) To be responsible for the implementation of this Law  and  other  laws
which, in accordance with  this  Law,  apply  in  the  Hong  Kong  Special
Administrative Region;
(3) To sign bills passed by the  Legislative  Council  and  to  promulgate
laws; To sign budgets passed by the Legislative  Council  and  report  the
budgets and final accounts to the  Central  People's  Government  for  the
record;
(4) To decide on government policies and to issue executive orders;
(5) To nominate and to report  to  the  Central  People's  Government  for
appointment the following  principal  officials:  Secretaries  and  Deputy
Secretaries of Departments, Directors  of  Bureaux,  Commissioner  Against
Corruption,  Director  of  Audit,  Commissioner  of  Police,  Director  of
Immigration and Commissioner of Customs and Excise; and  to  recommend  to
the  Central  People's  Government  the  removal  of  the  above-mentioned
officials;
(6) To appoint or remove judges of the courts at all levels in  accordance
with legal procedures;
(7) To appoint or remove holders of public office in accordance with legal
procedures;
(8) To implement the directives issued by the Central People's  Government
in respect of the relevant matters provided for in this Law;
(9) To conduct, on behalf of the  Government  of  the  Hong  Kong  Special
Administrative Region, external affairs and other affairs as authorized by
the Central Authorities;
(10)  To  approve  the  introduction  of  motions  regarding  revenues  or
expenditure to the Legislative Council;
(11) To decide, in the light  of  security  and  vital  public  interests,
whether government officials or other personnel in  charge  of  government
affairs should testify or give evidence before the Legislative Council  or
its committees;
(12) To pardon persons convicted of criminal  offences  or  commute  their
penalties; and (13) To handle petitions and complaints.

Article 49
If the Chief Executive of the  Hong  Kong  Special  Administrative  Region
considers that a bill passed by the Legislative Council is not  compatible
with the overall interests of the Region, he or she may return it  to  the
Legislative Council  within  three  months  for  reconsideration.  If  the
Legislative Council passes the original bill again by not less than a two-
thirds majority of all the members, the  Chief  Executive  must  sign  and
promulgate it within one month, or act in accordance with  the  provisions
of Article 50 of this Law.
Article 50
If the Chief executive of the  Hong  Kong  Special  Administrative  Region
refuses to sign a bill passed the second time by the Legislative  Council,
or the Legislative Council refuses to pass a budget or any other important
bill introduced by the  government,  and  if  consensus  still  cannot  be
reached  after  consultations,  the  Chief  Executive  may  dissolve   the
Legislative Council.
The Chief Executive must consult the Executive Council  before  dissolving
the Legislative Council. The Chief Executive may dissolve the  Legislative
Council only once in each term of his or her office.

Article 51
If the Legislative Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative  Region
refuses to pass  the  budget  introduced  by  the  government,  the  Chief
Executive  may  apply  to  the   Legislative   Council   for   provisional
appropriations. If  appropriation  of  public  funds  cannot  be  approved
because the Legislative Council has  already  been  dissolved,  the  Chief
Executive may, prior to the  election  of  the  new  Legislative  Council,
approve provisional short-term appropriations according to  the  level  of
expenditure of the previous fiscal year.
Article 52
The Chief Executive of the Hong Kong Special  Administrative  Region  must
resign under any of the following circumstances:
(1) When he or she loses the ability to discharge his or her duties  as  a
result of serious illness or other reasons;
(2) When, after the Legislative Council is dissolved  because  he  or  she
twice refuses to sign a bill passed by it,  the  new  Legislative  Council
again passes by a two-thirds majority of all the members the original bill
in dispute, but he or she still refuses to sign it; and
(3) When, after the Legislative Council is dissolved because it refuses to
pass a budget or any other important bill,  the  new  Legislative  Council
still refuses to pass the original bill in dispute.
Article 53
If the Chief Executive of the Hong Kong Special Administrative  Region  is
not able to discharge his or her duties for a short  period,  such  duties
shall temporarily be assumed by the  Administrative  Secretary,  Financial
Secretary or Secretary of Justice in this order of precedence.
In the event that the office of Chief  Executive  becomes  vacant,  a  new
Chief executive shall be selected within six months in accordance with the
provisions of Article 45 of this Law. During the period of vacancy, his or
her duties shall be assumed according to the provisions of  the  preceding
paragraph.
Article 54
The Executive council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall
be an organ for assisting the Chief Executive in policy-making.
Article 55
Members of the Executive Council of the Hong Kong  Special  Administrative
Region shall be appointed by the Chief Executive from among the  principle
officials of the executive authorities, members of the Legislative Council
and public figures. Their appointment or removal shall be decided  by  the
Chief Executive. The term of office of members of  the  Executive  Council
shall not extend beyond the expiry of the term  of  office  of  the  Chief
Executive who appoints them.
Members of the Executive Council of the Hong Kong  Special  Administrative
Region shall be Chinese citizens who are permanent residents of the Region
with no right of abode in any foreign country.
The Chief Executive may, as  he  or  she  deems  necessary,  invite  other
persons concerned to sit in on meetings of the Council.

Article 56
The Executive Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall
be presided over by the Chief Executive.
Except for the appointment, removal and disciplining of officials and  the
adoption of measures in emergencies, the Chief Executive shall consult the
Executive Council before making important  policy  decisions,  introducing
bills to the  Legislative  Council,  making  subordinate  legislation,  or
dissolving the Legislative Council.
If the Chief Executive does not accept a majority opinion of the Executive
Council, he or she shall put the specific reasons on record.
Article 57
A Commission Against Corruption shall be  established  in  the  Hong  Kong
Special Administrative Region. It  shall  function  independently  and  be
accountable to the Chief Executive.
Article 58
A Commission of Audit shall  be  established  in  the  Hong  Kong  Special
Administrative Region. It shall function independently and be  accountable
to the Chief Executive.

Section 2: the Executive Authorities
Article 59
The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall be the
executive authorities of the Region.
Article 60
The head of the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative  Region
shall be the Chief Executive of the Region.
A Department of Administration, a Department of Finance, a  Department  of
Justice,  and  various  bureaux,  divisions  and  commissions   shall   be
established in the Government of  the  Hong  Kong  Special  Administrative
Region.
Article 61
The principal officials of the Hong  Kong  Special  Administrative  Region
shall be Chinese citizens who are permanent residents of the  Region  with
no right of abode in any foreign country and have  ordinarily  resided  in
Hong Kong for a continuous period of not less than 15 years.
Article 62
The Government of  the  Hong  Kong  Special  Administrative  Region  shall
exercise the following powers and functions:
(1) To formulate and implement policies;
(2) To conduct administrative affairs;
(3) To conduct external affairs as  authorized  by  the  Central  People's
Government under this Law;
(4) To draw up and introduce budgets and final accounts;
(5) To draft and introduce bills, motions and subordinate legislation; and
(6) To designate officials to sit in on the meetings  of  the  Legislative
Council and to speak on behalf of the government.

Article 63
The Department of Justice of the Hong Kong Special  Administrative  Region
shall control criminal prosecutions, free from any interference.
Article 64
The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region  must  abide
by the law and be accountable to the Legislative Council of the Region: it
shall implement laws passed by the Council and already in force; it  shall
present regular policy addresses to the Council; it shall answer questions
raised by members of the Council; and it shall obtain  approval  from  the
Council for taxation and public expenditure.
Article 65
The previous system of  establishing  advisory  bodies  by  the  executive
authorities shall be maintained.

Section 3: The Legislature
Article 66
The Legislative Council of the Hong  Kong  Special  Administrative  Region
shall be the legislature of the Region.
Article 67
The Legislative Council of the Hong  Kong  Special  Administrative  Region
shall be composed of Chinese citizens who are permanent residents  of  the
Region with no right of abode in any foreign country.  However,  permanent
residents of the Region who are not of Chinese nationality or who have the
right of abode in foreign countries may also not of Chinese nationality or
who have the right of abode in  foreign  countries  may  also  be  elected
members of the Legislative  Council  of  the  Region,  provided  that  the
proportion of such members  does  not  exceed  20  percent  of  the  total
membership of the Council.
Article 68
The Legislative Council of the Hong  Kong  Special  Administrative  Region
shall be constituted by election.
The method for forming the Legislative Council shall be specified  in  the
light of the actual situation in  the  Hong  Kong  Special  Administrative
Region and in  accordance  with  the  principle  of  gradual  and  orderly
progress. The ultimate aim is the election  of  all  the  members  of  the
Legislative Council by universal suffrage.
The specific method for forming the Legislative Council and its procedures
for voting on bills and motions are prescribed in Annex II :  "Method  for
the Formation  of  the  Legislative  Council  of  the  Hong  Kong  Special
Administrative Region and Its Voting Procedures".

Article 69
The term of office of the Legislative Council of  the  Hong  Kong  Special
Administrative Region shall be four years, except  the  first  term  which
shall be two years.
Article 70
If the Legislative Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative  Region
is dissolved by the Chief Executive in accordance with the  provisions  of
this Law, it must, within three months, be reconstituted  by  election  in
accordance with Article 68 of this Law.
Article 71
The President  of  the  Legislative  Council  of  the  Hong  Kong  Special
Administrative Region shall be elected by and from among  the  members  of
the Legislative Council.
The President  of  the  Legislative  Council  of  the  Hong  Kong  Special
Administrative Region shall be a Chinese citizen of not less than 40 years
of age, who is a permanent resident of the Region with no right  of  abode
in any foreign country and has ordinarily  resided  in  Hong  Kong  for  a
continuous period of not less than 20 years.

Article 72
The President  of  the  Legislative  Council  of  the  Hong  Kong  Special
Administrative Region shall exercise the following powers and functions:
(1) To preside over meetings;
(2) To decide on the agenda,  giving  priority  to  government  bills  for
inclusion in the agenda;
(3) To decide on the time of meetings;
(4) To call special sessions during the recess;
(5) To call emergency sessions on the request of the Chief Executive; and
(6) To exercise other powers and functions as prescribed in the  rules  of
procedure of the Legislative Council.

Article 73
The Legislative Council of the Hong  Kong  Special  Administrative  Region
shall exercise the following powers and functions:
(1) To enact, amend or repeal laws in accordance with  the  provisions  of
this Law and legal procedures;
(2) To examine and approve budgets introduced by the government;
(3) To approve taxation and public expenditure;
(4) To receive and debate the policy addresses of the Chief Executive;
(5) To raise questions on the work of the government;
(6) To debate any issue concerning public interests;
(7) To endorse the appointment and removal of the judges of the  Court  of
Final Appeal and the Chief Judge of the High Court;
(8) To receive and handle complaints from Hong Kong residents;
(9) If a motion initiated jointly by one-fourth of all the members of  the
Legislative Council charges the Chief Executive with serious breach of law
or dereliction of duty and if he or she refuses  to  resign,  the  Council
may, after passing a motion for investigation, give a mandate to the Chief
Justice of the Court of Final Appeal to  form  and  chair  an  independent
investigation committee. The committee shall be responsible  for  carrying
out the investigation and reporting its findings to the  Council.  If  the
committee considers the evidence sufficient to substantiate such  charges,
the Council may pass a motion of impeachment by a two-thirds  majority  of
all its members and report it  to  the  Central  People's  Government  for
decision; and
(10) To summon, as required when exercising the above-mentioned powers and
functions, persons concerned to testify or give evidence.

Article 74
Members of the Legislative Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative
Region may introduce bills in accordance with the provisions of  this  Law
and legal procedures.  Bills which do not relate to public expenditure  or
political structure or the operation of the government may  be  introduced
individually or jointly by members of the Council.  The written consent of
the Chief Executive shall be required before bills relating to  government
policies are introduced.
Article 75
The quorum for the meeting of the Legislative Council  of  the  Hong  Kong
Special Administrative Region shall be not less than one half of  all  its
members.  The rules of procedure of the Legislative Council shall be  made
by the Council on its own, provided that they do not contravene this Law.
Article 76
A bill passed  by  the  Legislative  Council  of  the  Hong  Kong  Special
Administrative Region  may  take  effect  only  after  it  is  signed  and
promulgated by the Chief Executive.
Article 77
Members of the Legislative Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative
Region shall be immune from legal action in respect of their statements at
meetings of the Council.
Article 78
Members of the Legislative Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative
Region shall not be subjected to arrest when attending or on their way  to
a meeting of the Council.

Article 79
The President  of  the  Legislative  Council  of  the  Hong  Kong  Special
Administrative Region shall declare that a member of  the  Council  is  no
longer qualified for the office under any of the following circumstances:
(1) When he or she loses the ability to discharge his or her duties  as  a
result of serious illness or other reasons;
(2) When he or she, with no valid reason,  is  absent  from  meetings  for
three consecutive months without the  consent  of  the  President  of  the
Legislative Council;
(3) When he or she loses or renounces his or her  status  as  a  permanent
resident of the Region;
(4) When he or she accepts a government appointment and becomes  a  public
servant;
(5) When he or she is bankrupt or fails to comply with a  court  order  to
repay debts;
(6) When he or she is convicted and  sentenced  to  imprisonment  for  one
month or more for a criminal  offence  committed  within  or  outside  the
Region and is relieved of  his  or  her  duties  by  a  motion  passed  by
two-thirds of the members of the Legislative Council present;
and
(7) When he or she is censured for misbehaviour or breach  of  oath  by  a
vote of two-thirds of the members of the Legislative Council present.

Section 4: The Judiciary
Article 80
The courts of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region  at  all  levels
shall be the judiciary of the Region, exercising the judicial power of the
Region.
Article 81
The Court of Final Appeal, the High Court, district  courts,  magistrates'
courts and other special courts shall be  established  in  the  Hong  Kong
Special Administrative Region. The High Court shall comprise the Court  of
Appeal and the Court of First Instance.  The  judicial  system  previously
practised in Hong Kong  Shall  be  maintained  except  for  those  changes
consequent upon the establishment of the Court of Final Appeal of the Hong
Kong Special Administrative Region.
Article 82
The power of final adjudication of the Hong  Kong  Special  Administrative
Region shall be vested in the Court of Final Appeal of the  Region,  which
may as required invite judges from other common law jurisdictions  to  sit
on the Court of Final Appeal.
Article 83
The structure, powers and functions of the courts of the Hong Kong Special
Administrative Region at all levels shall be prescribed by law.
Article 84
The courts of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall adjudicate
cases in accordance with the laws applicable in the Region  as  prescribed
in Article 18 of this Law and may refer to precedents of other common  law
jurisdictions.
Article 85
The courts of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region  shall  exercise
judicial power independently, free from any interference. Members  of  the
judiciary shall be immune from legal action in the  performance  of  their
judicial functions.
Article 86
The principle of trial by jury previously practised in Hong Kong shall  be
maintained.
Article 87
In criminal or civil proceedings in the Hong Kong  Special  Administrative
Region, the principles previously applied in  Hong  Kong  and  the  rights
previously enjoyed by parties to proceedings shall be maintained.
Anyone who is lawfully arrested shall have the right to a  fair  trial  by
the judicial organs without delay and shall  be  presumed  innocent  until
convicted by the judicial organs.

Article 88
Judges of the courts of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region  shall
be  appointed  by  the  Chief  Executive  on  the  recommendation  of   an
independent commission composed of local judges, persons  from  the  legal
profession and eminent persons from other sectors.
Article 89
A judge of a court of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region may only
be  removed  for  inability  to  discharge  his  or  her  duties,  or  for
misbehaviour, by the Chief Executive on the recommendation of  a  tribunal
appointed by the Chief Justice of the Court of Final Appeal and consisting
of not fewer than three local judges.  The Chief Justice of the  Court  of
Final Appeal of  the  Hong  Kong  Special  Administrative  Region  may  be
investigated only for inability to discharge his or  her  duties,  or  for
misbehaviour,  by  a  tribunal  appointed  by  the  Chief  Executive   and
consisting of not fewer than five local judges and may be removed  by  the
Chief Executive on the recommendation of the tribunal  and  in  accordance
with the procedures prescribed in this Law.
Article 90
The Chief Justice of the Court of Final Appeal and the Chief Judge of  the
High Court of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall be Chinese
citizens who are permanent residents of the Region with no right of  abode
in any foreign country. In the case  of  the  appointment  or  removal  of
judges of the Court of Final Appeal and the Chief Judge of the High  Court
of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, the Chief Executive shall,
in addition to following the procedures prescribed in Articles 88  and  89
of this Law, obtain the endorsement of the Legislative Council and  report
such appointment or removal to the  Standing  Committee  of  the  National
People's Congress for the record.
Article 91
The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall  maintain  the  previous
system of appointment and removal of members of the judiciary  other  than
judges.
Article 92
Judges and other members  of  the  judiciary  of  the  Hong  Kong  Special
Administrative Region shall be chosen on the basis of their  judicial  and
professional  qualities  and  may  be  recruited  from  other  common  law
jurisdictions.
Article 93
Judges and other members of the judiciary serving in Hong Kong before  the
establishment of the Hong  Kong  Special  Administrative  Region  may  all
remain in employment and retain  their  seniority  with  pay,  allowances,
benefits and conditions of service no less favourable than before.
The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall pay to
judges and other members of the judiciary who retire or leave the  service
in compliance with regulations, including those who have retired  or  left
the  service  before  the  establishment  of   the   Hong   Kong   Special
Administrative Region, or to their dependants, all  pensions,  gratuities,
allowances and benefits due to them  on  terms  no  less  favourable  than
before, irrespective of their nationality or place of residence.

Article 94
On the basis  of  the  system  previously  operating  in  Hong  Kong,  the
Government of  the  Hong  Kong  Special  Administrative  Region  may  make
provisions for local lawyers and lawyers from outside Hong  Kong  to  work
and practise in the Region.
Article 95
The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region may, through consultations and
in accordance with law, maintain juridical  relations  with  the  judicial
organs of other parts of the country, and they may  render  assistance  to
each other.
Article 96
With the assistance or authorization of the Central  People's  Government,
the Government of the Hong Kong Special  Administrative  Region  may  make
appropriate arrangements with  foreign  states  for  reciprocal  juridical
assistance.

Section 5: District Organizations
Article 97
District organizations which are not organs  of  political  power  may  be
established  in  the  Hong  Kong  Special  Administrative  Region,  to  be
consulted by the government of the Region on district  administration  and
other affairs, or to be responsible for providing services in such  fields
as culture, recreation and environmental sanitation.
Article 98
The powers and functions of the district organizations and the method  for
their formation shall be prescribed by law.

Section 6: Public Servants
Article 99
Public servants serving in all government departments  of  the  Hong  Kong
Special Administrative Region must be permanent residents of  the  Region,
except where otherwise provided for in Article 101 of this  Law  regarding
public servants of foreign nationalities and  except  for  those  below  a
certain rank as prescribed by law.  Public servants must be  dedicated  to
their duties and be responsible to the Government of the Hong Kong Special
Administrative Region.
Article 100
Public servants serving in all Hong Kong government departments, including
the police department, before the establishment of the Hong  Kong  Special
Administrative Region, may all  remain  in  employment  and  retain  their
seniority with pay, allowances, benefits and conditions of service no less
favourable than before.

Article 101
The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region  may  employ
British and other foreign  nationals  previously  serving  in  the  public
service in Hong Kong, or those holding permanent  identity  cards  of  the
Region, to serve as public  servants  in  government  departments  at  all
levels, but only Chinese citizens among permanent residents of the  Region
with no right of abode in any  foreign  country  may  fill  the  following
posts: the Secretaries and Deputy Secretaries of Departments, Directors of
Bureaux, Commissioner Against Corruption, Director of Audit,  Commissioner
of Police, Director of Immigration and Commissioner of Customs and Excise.
The Government of the Hong Kong Special  Administrative  Region  may  also
employ British and other  foreign  nationals  as  advisers  to  government
departments and, when required,  may  recruit  qualified  candidates  from
outside the Region to fill professional and technical posts in  government
departments. These foreign nationals  shall  be  employed  only  in  their
individual capacities and shall be responsible to the  government  of  the
Region.
Article 102
The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall pay to
public servants who retire or who leave the  service  in  compliance  with
regulations, including those who have retired or who have left the service
in compliance with regulations before the establishment of the  Hong  Kong
Special Administrative Region,  or  to  their  dependants,  all  pensions,
gratuities,  allowances  and  benefits  due  to  them  on  terms  no  less
favourable than before, irrespective of  their  nationality  or  place  of
residence.
Article 103
The appointment and promotion of public servants shall be on the basis  of
their qualifications, experience and ability. Hong Kong's previous  system
of  recruitment,  employment,   assessment,   discipline,   training   and
management for the public service,  including  special  bodies  for  their
appointment, pay and conditions of service, shall  be  maintained,  except
for any provisions for privileged treatment of foreign nationals.
Article 104
When assuming office, the Chief Executive, principal officials, members of
the Executive Council and of the Legislative Council, judges of the courts
at all levels and other members of the judiciary in the Hong Kong  Special
Administrative Region must, in accordance with law, swear  to  uphold  the
Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of  the  People's
Republic  of  China  and  swear  allegiance  to  the  Hong  Kong   Special
Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China.
  
          Chapter V Economy

Section 1: Public Finance, Monetary Affairs, Trade, Industry and  Commerce
Article 105
The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall, in accordance with law,
protect the right of individuals and legal  persons  to  the  acquisition,
use, disposal and inheritance of property and their right to  compensation
for  lawful  deprivation  of  their  property.   Such  compensation  shall
correspond to the real value of the property concerned  at  the  time  and
shall be freely convertible and paid without undue delay.
The ownership of enterprises and the investments from outside  the  Region
shall be protected by law.
Article 106
The  Hong  Kong  Special  Administrative  Region  shall  have  independent
finances.  The Hong Kong  Special  Administrative  Region  shall  use  its
financial revenues exclusively for its own purposes, and they shall not be
handed over to the Central People's Government.
The Central People's Government shall not levy  taxes  in  the  Hong  Kong
Special Administrative Region.
Article 107
The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall follow the principle  of
keeping expenditure within the  limits  of  revenues  in  drawing  up  its
budget, and strive to achieve a fiscal balance, avoid  deficits  and  keep
the budget commensurate  with  the  growth  rate  of  its  gross  domestic
product.
Article 108
The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall practise an  independent
taxation system.
The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region  shall,  taking  the  low  tax
policy previously pursued in Hong Kong as reference, enact laws on its own
concerning types of taxes,  tax  rates,  tax  reductions,  allowances  and
exemptions, and other matters of taxation.
Article 109
The Government of  the  Hong  Kong  Special  Administrative  Region  shall
provide an appropriate economic and legal environment for the  maintenance
of the status of Hong Kong as an international financial centre.
Article 110
The monetary and financial systems of the Hong Kong Special Administrative
Region shall be prescribed by law.
The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative  Region  shall,  on
its own, formulate monetary and financial  policies,  safeguard  the  free
operation of financial business and financial markets,  and  regulate  and
supervise them in accordance with law.

Article 111
The Hong Kong dollar, as  the  legal  tender  in  the  Hong  Kong  Special
Administrative Region, shall continue to circulate.
The authority  to  issue  Hong  Kong  currency  shall  be  vested  in  the
Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.  The  issue  of
Hong Kong currency must be backed by a 100  per  cent  reserve  fund.  The
system regarding the issue of Hong Kong  currency  and  the  reserve  fund
system shall be prescribed by law.
The  Government  of  the  Hong  Kong  Special  Administrative  Region  may
authorize designated banks  to  issue  or  continue  to  issue  Hong  Kong
currency under statutory authority, after satisfying itself that any issue
of currency will be soundly based and that the arrangements for such issue
are consistent with  the  object  of  maintaining  the  stability  of  the
currency.
Article 112
No foreign exchange control policies shall be applied  in  the  Hong  Kong
Special Administrative Region.  The  Hong  Kong  dollar  shall  be  freely
convertible. Markets for foreign exchange, gold, securities,  futures  and
the like  shall  continue.   The  Government  of  the  Hong  Kong  Special
Administrative Region shall safeguard the free  flow  of  capital  within,
into and out of the Region.
Article 113
The Exchange Fund of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall  be
managed and controlled by the government  of  the  Region,  primarily  for
regulating the exchange value of the Hong Kong dollar.
Article 114
The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall maintain the status of a
free port and shall not impose any tariff unless otherwise  prescribed  by
law.
Article 115
The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall  pursue  the  policy  of
free trade and safeguard the free movement of goods, intangible assets and
capital.
Article 116
The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall be  a  separate  customs
territory. The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region may, using the name
"Hong Kong, China", participate in  relevant  international  organizations
and  international  trade   agreements   (including   preferential   trade
arrangements), such as the General Agreement  on  Tariffs  and  Trade  and
arrangements regarding international trade in  textiles.   Export  quotas,
tariff preferences and other similar arrangements, which are  obtained  or
made by the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region or which were obtained
or made and remain valid, shall be enjoyed exclusively by the Region.

Article 117
The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region may issue its own certificates
of origin for products in accordance with prevailing rules of origin.
Article 118
The Government of  the  Hong  Kong  Special  Administrative  Region  shall
provide an economic and legal  environment  for  encouraging  investments,
technological progress and the development of new industries.
Article 119
The Government of  the  Hong  Kong  Special  Administrative  Region  shall
formulate appropriate policies to promote and coordinate  the  development
of various trades such as manufacturing, commerce, tourism,  real  estate,
transport, public utilities, services, agriculture and fisheries, and  pay
regard to the protection of the environment.

Section 2: Land Leases
Article 120
All  leases  of  land  granted,  decided  upon  or  renewed   before   the
establishment of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region which  extend
beyond 30 June 1997, and all rights in  relation  to  such  leases,  shall
continue to be recognized and protected under the law of the Region.
Article 121
As regards all leases of land granted or renewed where the original leases
contain no right of renewal, during the period from 27 May 1985 to 30 June
1997, which extend beyond 30 June 1997 and expire not later than  30  June
2047, the lessee is not required to pay an additional premium  as  from  1
July 1997, but an annual rent equivalent to 3 per  cent  of  the  rateable
value of the property at that date, adjusted in step with any  changes  in
the rateable value thereafter, shall be charged.
Article 122
In the case of old schedule lots, village lots, small houses  and  similar
rural holdings, where the property was on 30 June 1984 held by, or, in the
case of small houses granted  after  that  date,  where  the  property  is
granted to, a lessee descended through the male line from a person who was
in 1898 a resident of an established village in Hong  Kong,  the  previous
rent shall remain unchanged so long as the property is held by that lessee
or by one of his lawful successors in the male line.
Article 123
Where leases  of  land  without  a  right  of  renewal  expire  after  the
establishment of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region,  they  shall
be dealt with in accordance with  laws  and  policies  formulated  by  the
Region on its own.

Section 3: Shipping
Article 124
The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region  shall  maintain  Hong  Kong's
previous systems of shipping management and shipping regulation, including
the system for regulating conditions of seamen.
The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative  Region  shall,  on
its own, define its specific functions and responsibilities in respect  of
shipping.
Article 125
The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall  be  authorized  by  the
Central People's Government to continue to maintain  a  shipping  register
and issue related certificates under its legislation, using the name "Hong
Kong, China".
Article 126
With the exception of foreign warships,  access  for  which  requires  the
special permission of the Central People's Government, ships  shall  enjoy
access to the ports of the Hong  Kong  Special  Administrative  Region  in
accordance with the laws of the Region.
Article 127
Private shipping businesses and shipping-related  businesses  and  private
container terminals in the Hong Kong  Special  Administrative  Region  may
continue to operate freely.

Section 4: Civil Aviation
Article 128
The Government of  the  Hong  Kong  Special  Administrative  Region  shall
provide conditions and take measures for the maintenance of the status  of
Hong Kong as a centre of international and regional aviation.
Article 129
The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall  continue  the  previous
system of civil aviation management in Hong Kong and keep its own aircraft
register in accordance with provisions laid down by the  Central  People's
Government  concerning  nationality  marks  and  registration   marks   of
aircraft.
Access of foreign state aircraft to the Hong Kong  Special  Administrative
Region shall require  the  special  permission  of  the  Central  People's
Government.
Article 130
The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall be  responsible  on  its
own for matters of routine business  and  technical  management  of  civil
aviation, including the management  of  airports,  the  provision  of  air
traffic services within the flight information region  of  the  Hong  Kong
Special Administrative Region, and the discharge of other responsibilities
allocated to it under  the  regional  air  navigation  procedures  of  the
International Civil Aviation Organization.

Article 131
The Central People's Government shall, in consultation with the Government
of  the  Hong  Kong  Special  Administrative  Region,  make   arrangements
providing air services between the Region and other parts of the  People's
Republic of China for airlines  incorporated  in  the  Hong  Kong  Special
Administrative Region and having their principal place of business in Hong
Kong and other airlines of the People's Republic of China.
Article 132
All air service agreements providing air services between other  parts  of
the People's Republic of China and other states and regions with stops  at
the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and air services  between  the
Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and other states and regions  with
stops at other parts of the People's Republic of China shall be  concluded
by the Central People's Government.
In concluding  the  air  service  agreements  referred  to  in  the  first
paragraph of this Article, the  Central  People's  Government  shall  take
account of the special conditions and economic interests of the Hong  Kong
Special Administrative Region and consult the government of the Region.
Representatives of the Government of the Hong Kong Special  Administrative
Region may, as members  of  the  delegations  of  the  Government  of  the
People's Republic of  China,  participate  in  air  service  consultations
conducted by the Central  People's  Government  with  foreign  governments
concerning arrangements  for  such  services  referred  to  in  the  first
paragraph of this Article.
Article 133
Acting under specific authorizations from the Central People's Government,
the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region may:
(1) renew or amend air service agreements and arrangements  previously  in
force;
(2) negotiate and conclude new air service agreements providing routes for
airlines incorporated in the Hong Kong Special Administrative  Region  and
having their principal place of business in Hong Kong and providing rights
for over-flights and technical stops; and
(3) negotiate and conclude provisional arrangements with foreign states or
regions with which no air service agreements have been concluded.
All scheduled air services to, from or through Hong  Kong,  which  do  not
operate to, from or through the mainland of China shall  be  regulated  by
the air service agreements or provisional arrangements referred to in this
Article.

Article 134
The Central People's Government shall give the Government of the Hong Kong
Special Administrative Region the authority to:
(1)  negotiate  and  conclude  with  other  authorities  all  arrangements
concerning  the  implementation  of  the  air   service   agreements   and
provisional arrangements referred to in Article 133 of this Law;
(2) issue licences to airlines  incorporated  in  the  Hong  Kong  Special
Administrative Region and having their principal place of business in Hong
Kong;
(3)  designate  such  airlines  under  the  air  service  agreements   and
provisional arrangements referred to in Article 133 of this Law; and
(4) issue permits to foreign airlines for services other  than  those  to,
from or through the mainland of China.
Article 135
Airlines incorporated and having their principal place of business in Hong
Kong and businesses related to civil aviation functioning there  prior  to
the establishment of the  Hong  Kong  Special  Administrative  Region  may
continue to operate.
  
          Chapter VI Education, Science, Culture, Sports,  Religion,  Labour and Social Services

Article 136
On the basis of the previous educational system,  the  Government  of  the
Hong Kong Special Administrative  Region  shall,  on  its  own,  formulate
policies on  the  development  and  improvement  of  education,  including
policies regarding the educational  system  and  its  administration,  the
language of instruction, the allocation of funds, the examination  system,
the  system  of  academic  awards  and  the  recognition  of   educational
qualifications.   Community  organizations   and   individuals   may,   in
accordance with law, run educational undertakings of various kinds in  the
Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.
Article 137
Educational institutions of all kinds may retain their autonomy and  enjoy
academic freedom. They may continue to  recruit  staff  and  use  teaching
materials from outside the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.
Schools run by religious organizations may continue to  provide  religious
education, including courses in religion.  Students shall enjoy freedom of
choice of educational institutions and freedom to pursue  their  education
outside the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.
Article 138
The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative  Region  shall,  on
its own, formulate policies to develop  Western  and  traditional  Chinese
medicine  and  to  improve  medical   and   health   services.   Community
organizations and individuals  may  provide  various  medical  and  health
services in accordance with law.
Article 139
The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative  Region  shall,  on
its own, formulate policies on science and technology and protect  by  law
achievements  in   scientific   and   technological   research,   patents,
discoveries and inventions.  The  Government  of  the  Hong  Kong  Special
Administrative Region shall, on its own,  decide  on  the  scientific  and
technological standards and specifications applicable in Hong Kong.
Article 140
The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative  Region  shall,  on
its own, formulate policies on culture and protect by law the achievements
and the lawful rights and interests  of  authors  in  their  literary  and
artistic creation.
Article 141
The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative  Region  shall  not
restrict the freedom  of  religious  belief,  interfere  in  the  internal
affairs of religious organizations or restrict religious activities  which
do not contravene the laws of the Region.
Religious organizations shall, in accordance with law, enjoy the rights to
acquire, use, dispose of and inherit property and  the  right  to  receive
financial assistance. Their previous property rights and  interests  shall
be maintained and protected.  Religious organizations  may,  according  to
their previous practice, continue to run  seminaries  and  other  schools,
hospitals and welfare institutions and to provide other social services.
Religious  organizations  and  believers  in   the   Hong   Kong   Special
Administrative Region  may  maintain  and  develop  their  relations  with
religious organizations and believers elsewhere.

Article 142
The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative  Region  shall,  on
the basis of maintaining the previous systems concerning the  professions,
formulate provisions on its  own  for  assessing  the  qualifications  for
practice  in  the   various   professions.   Persons   with   professional
qualifications or qualifications for professional practice obtained  prior
to the establishment of the Hong Kong Special  Administrative  Region  may
retain their previous  qualifications  in  accordance  with  the  relevant
regulations and codes of practice.
The Government of  the  Hong  Kong  Special  Administrative  Region  shall
continue to recognize the professions and the  professional  organizations
recognized  prior  to  the  establishment  of  the   Region,   and   these
organizations  may,  on  their  own,  assess   and   confer   professional
qualifications.
The Government of the Hong Kong  Special  Administrative  Region  may,  as
required by developments in society and in consultation with  the  parties
concerned, recognize new professions and professional organizations.
Article 143
The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative  Region  shall,  on
its  own,  formulate   policies   on   sports.   Non-governmental   sports
organizations may continue to exist and develop in accordance with law.
Article 144
The Government of  the  Hong  Kong  Special  Administrative  Region  shall
maintain the policy previously  practised  in  Hong  Kong  in  respect  of
subventions  for  non-governmental  organizations  in   fields   such   as
education, medicine and health, culture, art, recreation,  sports,  social
welfare and social work. Staff members  previously  serving  in  subvented
organizations in Hong Kong may remain in their  employment  in  accordance
with the previous system.
Article 145
On the basis of the previous social welfare system, the Government of  the
Hong Kong Special Administrative  Region  shall,  on  its  own,  formulate
policies on the development and improvement of this system in the light of
the economic conditions and social needs.
Article 146
Voluntary organizations providing social services in the Hong Kong Special
Administrative Region may, on their own, decide their  forms  of  service,
provided that the law is not contravened.
Article 147
The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall  on  its  own  formulate
laws and policies relating to labour.

Article 148
The relationship between non-governmental organizations in fields such  as
education, science, technology, culture,  art,  sports,  the  professions,
medicine and health, labour, social welfare and social  work  as  well  as
religious organizations in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and
their counterparts on the mainland shall be based  on  the  principles  of
non-subordination, non-interference and mutual respect.
Article 149
Non-governmental organizations  in  fields  such  as  education,  science,
technology, culture, art, sports, the professions,  medicine  and  health,
labour, social welfare and social work as well as religious  organizations
in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region may  maintain  and  develop
relations with their counterparts in foreign  countries  and  regions  and
with relevant international organizations. They may, as required, use  the
name "Hong Kong, China" in the relevant activities.
  
          Chapter VII External Affairs

Article 150
Representatives of the Government of the Hong Kong Special  Administrative
Region may, as members of delegations of the Government  of  the  People's
Republic of China, participate in negotiations  at  the  diplomatic  level
directly  affecting  the  Region  conducted  by   the   Central   People's
Government.
Article 151
The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region may on its own, using the name
"Hong Kong, China",  maintain  and  develop  relations  and  conclude  and
implement  agreements  with  foreign  states  and  regions  and   relevant
international organizations  in  the  appropriate  fields,  including  the
economic,  trade,  financial  and  monetary,   shipping,   communications,
tourism, cultural and sports fields.
Article 152
Representatives of the Government of the Hong Kong Special  Administrative
Region may, as members of delegations of the People's Republic  of  China,
participate in international organizations or conferences  in  appropriate
fields limited to states and affecting the Region, or may attend  in  such
other capacity as may be permitted by the Central People's Government  and
the international organization or conference concerned,  and  may  express
their views, using the name "Hong Kong, China".
The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region  may,  using  the  name  "Hong
Kong, China", participate in international organizations  and  conferences
not limited to states. The Central  People's  Government  shall  take  the
necessary steps to ensure that the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
shall continue to retain its status in an appropriate  capacity  in  those
international organizations of which the People's Republic of China  is  a
member and in which Hong Kong participates in one capacity or another.
The Central People's Government shall,  where  necessary,  facilitate  the
continued participation of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region  in
an appropriate capacity in those international organizations in which Hong
Kong is a participant in  one  capacity  or  another,  but  of  which  the
People's Republic of China is not a member.
Article 153
The  application  to  the  Hong  Kong  Special  Administrative  Region  of
international agreements to which the People's Republic  of  China  is  or
becomes a party shall be decided by the Central  People's  Government,  in
accordance with the circumstances and  needs  of  the  Region,  and  after
seeking  the  views  of  the  government  of  the  Region.   International
agreements to which the People's Republic of China  is  not  a  party  but
which are implemented in Hong Kong may continue to be implemented  in  the
Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. The Central  People's  Government
shall, as necessary, authorize or assist the government of the  Region  to
make appropriate arrangements for the application to the Region  of  other
relevant international agreements.

Article 154
The Central People's Government shall authorize the Government of the Hong
Kong Special Administrative Region  to  issue,  in  accordance  with  law,
passports of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of  the  People's
Republic of China to all Chinese  citizens  who  hold  permanent  identity
cards of the Region,  and  travel  documents  of  the  Hong  Kong  Special
Administrative Region of the People's  Republic  of  China  to  all  other
persons lawfully residing in the Region. The above passports and documents
shall be valid for all states and regions and shall  record  the  holder's
right to return to the Region. The Government of  the  Hong  Kong  Special
Administrative Region may apply immigration controls on entry  into,  stay
in and departure from the  Region  by  persons  from  foreign  states  and
regions.
Article 155
The Central People's Government shall assist or authorize  the  Government
of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region to conclude visa  abolition
agreements with foreign states or regions.
Article 156
The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region may, as  necessary,  establish
official or semi-official economic and trade missions in foreign countries
and shall report  the  establishment  of  such  missions  to  the  Central
People's Government for the record.
Article 157
The establishment of foreign consular and other official or  semi-official
missions in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall require  the
approval of the Central People's Government.
Consular and other official missions established in Hong  Kong  by  states
which have formal diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China
may be maintained.  According to the circumstances of each case,  consular
and other official missions established in Hong Kong by states which  have
no formal diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China may  be
permitted either to remain or be changed to semi-official missions.
States not recognized by the People's Republic of China may only establish
non-governmental institutions in the Region.
  
          Chapter VIII Interpretation and Amendment of the Basic Law

Article 158
The power of interpretation of this Law shall be vested  in  the  Standing
Committee of the National People's Congress.
The Standing Committee of the National People's Congress  shall  authorize
the courts of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region to interpret  on
their own, in adjudicating cases, the provisions of  this  Law  which  are
within the limits of the autonomy of the Region.
The courts of  the  Hong  Kong  Special  Administrative  Region  may  also
interpret other provisions of this Law in adjudicating cases. However,  if
the courts of the Region, in adjudicating cases,  need  to  interpret  the
provisions of this Law concerning affairs which are the responsibility  of
the Central People's Government, or concerning  the  relationship  between
the Central Authorities and the Region, and if  such  interpretation  will
affect the judgments on the cases, the courts of the Region shall,  before
making  their  final  judgments  which  are  not   appealable,   seek   an
interpretation of the relevant provisions from the Standing  Committee  of
the National People's Congress through the Court of Final  Appeal  of  the
Region. When  the  Standing  Committee  makes  an  interpretation  of  the
provisions  concerned,  the  courts  of  the  Region,  in  applying  those
provisions, shall follow the interpretation of the Standing Committee.
However, judgments previously rendered shall not be affected.
The Standing Committee of the National People's Congress shall consult its
Committee for the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
before giving an interpretation of this Law.
Article 159
The power of amendment of  this  Law  shall  be  vested  in  the  National
people's Congress.  The power to propose bills for amendments to this  Law
shall be vested  in  the  Standing  Committee  of  the  National  People's
Congress, the State Council  and  the  Hong  Kong  Special  Administrative
Region. Amendment bills from the Hong Kong Special  Administrative  Region
shall be submitted to the National People's Congress by the delegation  of
the Region to the National People's Congress after obtaining  the  consent
of two-thirds of the deputies of  the  Region  to  the  National  People's
Congress, two-thirds of all the members of the Legislative Council of  the
Region, and the  Chief  Executive  of  the  Region.   Before  a  bill  for
amendment to this Law is put  on  the  agenda  of  the  National  People's
Congress, the Committee for  the  Basic  Law  of  the  Hong  Kong  Special
Administrative Region shall study it and submit its views.
No amendment to this Law shall contravene the established  basic  policies
of the People's Republic of China regarding Hong Kong.
  
          Chapter IX Supplementary Provisions

Article 160
Upon the establishment of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, the
laws previously in force in Hong Kong shall be  adopted  as  laws  of  the
Region except for those which  the  Standing  Committee  of  the  National
People's Congress declares to be in contravention of this Law. If any laws
are later discovered to be in contravention of this  Law,  they  shall  be
amended or cease to  have  force  in  accordance  with  the  procedure  as
prescribed by this Law.
Documents, certificates, contracts, and rights and obligations valid under
the laws previously in force in Hong Kong shall continue to be  valid  and
be recognized and  protected  by  the  Hong  Kong  Special  Administrative
Region, provided that they do not contravene this Law.

Annex I:
Method for the Selection of the Chief Executive of the Hong  Kong  Special
Administrative Region
1. The Chief Executive  shall  be  elected  by  a  broadly  representative
Election Committee in accordance  with  this  Law  and  appointed  by  the
Central People's Government.
2. The Election Committee shall  be  composed  of  800  members  from  the
following sectors:
Industrial, commercial and financial sectors                           200
The professions                                                        200
Labour, social services, religious and other sectors                   200
Members of the Legislative Council, representatives of
district-based organizations, Hong Kong deputies to
the National People's Congress, and representatives
of Hong Kong members of the National Committee of
the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference                 200
The term of office of the Election Committee shall be five years.
3. The delimitation of the various  sectors,  the  organizations  in  each
sector eligible to return Election Committee members  and  the  number  of
such members returned by each of these organizations shall  be  prescribed
by an electoral law enacted by the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
in accordance with the principles of democracy and openness.
Corporate bodies in various sectors shall, on their own, elect members  to
the Election Committee, in accordance with the number of  seats  allocated
and the election method as prescribed by the electoral law.
Members  of  the  Election  Committee  shall  vote  in  their   individual
capacities.
4. Candidates for the office of Chief Executive may be  nominated  jointly
by not less than 100 members of the Election Committee.
Each member may nominate only one candidate.

5. The Election Committee shall, on the basis of  the  list  of  nominees,
elect  the   Chief   Executive   designate   by   secret   ballot   on   a
one-person-one-vote  basis.  The  specific  election   method   shall   be
prescribed by the electoral law.
6. The first Chief Executive shall be  selected  in  accordance  with  the
"Decision of the National People's Congress of the  People's  Republic  of
China on the Method for the Formation of  the  First  Government  and  the
First Legislative Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region".
7. If there is a  need  to  amend  the  method  for  selecting  the  Chief
Executives for the terms subsequent to the year 2007, such amendments must
be made with the endorsement of a two-thirds majority of all  the  members
of the Legislative Council and the consent of  the  Chief  Executive,  and
they shall be reported to the Standing Committee of the National  People's
Congress for approval.

Annex II:
Method for the Formation of the  Legislative  Council  of  the  Hong  Kong
Special    Administrative    Region    and    Its    Voting     Procedures
I.   Method   for   the   formation    of    the    Legislative    Council
1. The Legislative Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative  Region
shall be composed of 60 members in each  term.  In  the  first  term,  the
Legislative Council shall be formed in accordance with  the  "Decision  of
the National People's Congress of the People's Republic of  China  on  the
Method for the Formation of the First Government and the First Legislative
Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region".  The  composition
of the Legislative Council in the second  and  third  terms  shall  be  as
follows:
Second term
Members returned by functional constituencies                           30
Members returned by the Election Committee                               6
Members returned by geographical constituencies
through direct elections                                                24
Third term
Members returned by functional constituencies                           30
Members returned by geographical constituencies
through direct elections                                                30
2. Except in the  case  of  the  first  Legislative  Council,  the  above-
mentioned Election Committee refers to the one provided for in Annex I  of
this Law.
The division of geographical constituencies  and  the  voting  method  for
direct elections therein;  the  delimitation  of  functional  sectors  and
corporate bodies, their seat allocation and election methods;
and the method for electing members of  the  Legislative  Council  by  the
Election Committee shall be specified by an electoral  law  introduced  by
the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region  and  passed
by the Legislative Council.
II. Procedures for voting on bills and motions in the Legislative  Council
Unless otherwise provided for in this Law, the Legislative  Council  shall
adopt the following procedures for voting on bills and motions:
The passage of bills introduced by the government shall require at least a
simple majority vote of the members of the Legislative Council present.
The passage of motions, bills or amendments to government bills introduced
by individual members of the Legislative Council shall  require  a  simple
majority vote of each of  the  two  groups  of  members  present:  members
returned by functional constituencies and those returned  by  geographical
constituencies through direct elections and by the Election Committee.

III. Method for the formation of the Legislative Council  and  its  voting
procedures subsequent to the year 2007
With regard to the method for forming the Legislative Council of the  Hong
Kong Special Administrative Region and its procedures for voting on  bills
and motions after 2007, if there is a need to amend the provisions of this
Annex, such amendments must be made with the endorsement of  a  two-thirds
majority of all the members of the Council and the consent  of  the  Chief
Executive, and they shall be reported to the  Standing  Committee  of  the
National People's Congress for the record.
Annex III:
National Laws to be Applied in the Hong Kong special Administrative Region
The following national laws shall be applied locally with  effect  from  1
July 1997 by way of promulgation or legislation by the Hong  Kong  Special
Administrative Region:
1. Resolution on the Capital, Calendar, National Anthem and National  Flag
of the People's Republic of China.
2. Resolution on the National Day of the People's Republic of China.
3. Order on  the  National  Emblem  of  the  People's  Republic  of  China
Proclaimed by the Central People's Government.
Attached: Design of the national emblem notes of explanation and
instructions for use.
4. Declaration of the Government of the People's Republic of China
on the Territorial Sea.
5. Nationality Law of the People's Republic of China.
6. Regulations of the People's Republic of China Concerning Diplomatic
Privileges and Immunities.

The Design of the Regional Flag and  the Design of the Regional Emblem of
the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region  of  the People's Republic of
China see page 90 of this book.
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